City Sanitation Plan
City Sanitation Plans are strategic planning processes for citywide sanitation sector development. Addressing technical and non-technical aspects of sanitation services, city sanitation plans include the vision, missions, and goals of sanitation development as well as strategies to meet these goals.
City Sanitation (Master) Plans (CSP), sometimes also referred to as Municipal Sanitation Plans or Water and Sanitation Strategy Plans, are strategic planning processes for citywide sanitation sector development. To manage water resources, water safety plans (WSP) exist.
A citywide sanitation strategy includes the vision, missions, and goals of sanitation development as well as strategies to meet these goals. Each strategy is then translated into indicative programmes (and projects). The citywide sanitation strategy covers (WSP 2010)
Technical aspects, including strategies and programmes for the development of (a) domestic wastewater services, (b) solid waste management services, and (c) micro drainage services.
Non-technical aspects, including strategies for the development of non-physical aspects such as (a) community awareness and participation, (b) policy and regulation, (c) institutional capacity, (d) private sector engagement, (e) NGO engagement, (f) financing and tariffs, and (g) monitoring and evaluation.
Why Citywide Strategic Sanitation Planning?
Although each city is different, city sanitation services should be developed based on a common set of principles. Services must be comprehensive and continuously accessible to all residents. The entire city should have sanitation services suited to its needs, allowing all residents to enjoy the benefits of improved sanitation.
To meet the total sanitation principles, a city needs a strategic approach. Following are some generic approaches that a city can use as the basis for developing more strategic approaches to sanitation development.
Enhance synergy among the actors in sanitation development, including municipal government agencies, the private sector, NGOs, and others.
Employ appropriate technologies that are suitable to user needs, while ensuring that they are relevant to the city’s actual conditions, comply with technical standards, and prevent potential impacts (see also sanitation systems).
Develop sanitation in all parts of the city (citywide), prioritising poor residential areas where the health risks are highest. Promote awareness of health and hygiene behaviour while creating demand for better sanitation services (see also health and hygiene issues).
Create opportunities and incentives for private sector initiatives in the development and operation of sanitation services (see also public private partnerships). Foster better use of existing sanitation services, which becomes the basis for developing new services.
Encourage the development of community-based sanitation services, especially in areas where public and private services are difficult to establish.
Engage stakeholder groups, including women groups, in sanitation planning, in line with their respective capacities (see also water sanitation and gender).
Create enabling institutional and regulatory frameworks to accelerate sanitation services development.
Increase funding from sources other than municipal government, such as from the national and provincial governments, donor agencies, the private sector and the public (see also financing and sources of funding).
Source: Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management, 2014
Draft City Sanitation Plan For Various Indian Cities
Future roadmap for Smart Cities in India
- 100 smart cities: The government has allocated an outlay of Rs 98,000 crore (US$ 15,329.26 million) to execute 100 smart cities, and the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT), which is an urban rejuvenation programme for 500 towns and cities in next 5 years.
- Smart heritage cities: The government has introduced a project to develop 12 heritage cities across the country. Called HRIDAY Scheme or National Heritage Development and Augmentation Yojana, the cities included are Ajmer, Amaravati, Amritsar, Badami, Dwaraka, Gaya, Kanchipuram, Mathura, Puri, Varanasi, Velankanni and Warangal.
- Smart ports: The government plans to connect 12 smart cities with the maritime hubs at an estimated cost of Rs 50,000 crore (US$ 7821.05 million).
- Smart armed force stations (SAFS): There is a proposal to develop 6 smart armed force stations (SAFS). Of the 6 stations; 3 will be army stations, 2 of airforce and 1 of the navy.
- Smart aerotropolis: The West Bengal government plans to develop first airport city called the Bengal Aerotropolis Pvt Ltd (BAPL) at Andal in Burdwan district.
- Smart railways: Ministry of Railways has introduced world-class station programme to upgrade and revamp the existing railway stations. New Delhi Station will be the first station to be redeveloped within this programme spread over 86 hectares land with 18 platforms to handle in excess of 500,000 passengers per day. The Surat railway station is also to follow with 2.27 lakh square metre for redevelopment of new station. Along with this a total of 1,052 stations have been identified for upgradation of passenger amenities. It is proposed to include 200 more stations under this scheme.
- Smart villages: Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (Parliamentarian's Model Village Scheme aims to ensure holistic development of identified gram panchayats. Under this programme, Andhra Pradesh is the first state to launch the 'Smart Village' plan aimed at making AP, a top state in the country by 2029.
- DMIC: The Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) running through six states Delhi, Western Uttar Pradesh, Southern Haryana, Eastern Rajasthan, Eastern Gujarat, and Western ans to build a dedicated freight corridors along the Delhi-Mumbai. The cities that have been identified are Dholera in Gujarat, Shendra-Bidkin in Maharashtra, Greater Noida in UP, Ujjain (MP) and Gurgaon in Haryana.
- SEZ: Guizhou International Investment Corp (GIIC) has signed an MoU with Kakinada SEZ (KSEZ), a subsidiary of GMR Infrastructure to develop industrial park over 2,000-acre land for setting up Chinese high-end equipment manufacturing plants. GIIC will invest $500 million in developing the infrastructure and various facilities of the industrial park. These Chinese companies will invest $2-3 billion in setting up their operations over the next 5 years and generating more than 5,000 jobs for both skilled and unskilled workers.