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| Last Updated:: 04/08/2018

Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA)

Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) or Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) is a Community-led total sanitation program initiated by Government of India in 1999. The approach adopted in this campaign aims at motivating rural households to build toilet facilities and encouraging their use. Thus, the emphasis is on designing strategies to motivate individual households so that they realize the need for good sanitation practices. The campaign aims at not only construction of low cost toilets but also motivating the family members of rural households to use them. In addition, the programme also aims at modifying and improving personal hygiene behaviour. The programme has been re-oriented to focus the sanitation programme for achieving an open defecation free (ODF) environment. Thus, not only individual households, but also communities, village, schools and Anganwadi Centres have been targeted.


TSC is being implemented in association with Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) at all levels, through social mobilization for construction of toilets and also maintain clean environment by way of safe disposal of wastes. NGOs and other Support Organizations are actively involved in IEC activities on one hand and in providing required hardware for toilet construction through Rural Sanitation Marts (RSM) and Production Centres (PCs) on the other.


Objectives of Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan


  • Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas.


  • Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Nirmal Bharat by 2022 with all gram Panchayats in the country attaining Nirmal status.


  • Motivate communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions promoting sustainable sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health education.


  • To cover the remaining schools not covered under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and Anganwadi Centres in the rural areas with proper sanitation facilities and undertake proactive promotion of hygiene education and sanitary habits among students.


  • Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.


  • Develop community managed environmental sanitation systems focusing on solid & liquid waste management for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.


The Government of India has announced a new Swachh Bharat Mission, or Mission for a Sanitary India. The details of the Mission are currently under development. We recommend the following five principles:


  • Reducing open defecation is the top priority: Although there are many benefits of a cleaner India, it is open defecation which kills hundreds of thousands of children each year and limits the development of those who survive. Open defecation shall be the top priority of the Mission.


  • Central measurement of latrine use: Recognizing that any goal that is not measured is not achieved, the Swach Bharat Mission shall establish an independent, accountable mechanism of monitoring latrine use, not latrine construction.

  • Achieving latrine use requires promoting behaviour change: Information, education, and latrine use promotion shall be the cornerstones of any successful Mission to end open defecation. Officers shall not be asked how many latrines they constructed; instead, officers shall be held to account for what they did to change minds and behaviour and to promote latrine use.

  • Latrine use requires a ground staff: Rural sanitation teams at the block and district level require a new, dedicated staff responsible only for behaviour change and promotion of latrine use, not for latrine construction. Officers shall be rewarded for trying and learning from new ideas, whether they succeed or fail.


  • Learn from doing and learn from the best: The Government shall lead a programme of learning from successes, failures, and challenges of attempts to change behaviour and to promote latrine use. The Mission shall learn from the experiences of the Pulse Polio campaign, from leaders in the field of marketing, and from experts on rural sanitation behaviour.



View Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP) Guidleines for complete details.


View Baseline Survey 2012 for complete details.