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| Last Updated:: 14/07/2018

Disposal of waste water in Ganga basin

Industrial & Domestic Waste discharge in River Ganga

 

  • Both industrial effluent and domestic waste water contribute to the pollution in river Ganga. 6614 MLD of waste water with an organic pollution load of 426 TPD is discharged into river Ganga.
  • Approximately 90% of the river’s natural discharge is extracted by the time the river reaches Kanpur.
  • 764 Grossly Polluting Industries (GPIs) are directly discharging their effluent into river Ganga.
  • 90% of GPIs are located in Uttar Pradesh while 58% of the GPIs constitute of tannery sector.
  • Pulp and Paper sector contributes highest quantity of BOD load (65%) and effluent discharge ( 55%), whereas the maximum average BOD is discharged by the distillery sector
  • The drains in Uttar Pradesh contribute 57% of wastewater flow and 44% of the BOD load to river Ganga.
  • Domestic waste water percentage contribution in the total quantity of wastewater and BOD load is 92 and 69 respectively and the remaining is contributed by industrial effluent
  • Maximum wastewater discharge & BOD load have been reported from segment III B and IV A respectively.Segment III A& B and Segment IV A have very water poor quality w.r.t BOD & FC concentration levels. River Ganga receives 80% of the total organic load in these segments. The concentration of Pulp & Paper, Distillery & Tannery units is maximum in these segments. Poor water quality in these segments can be directly attributed to the organic load contributed by the domestic & industrial discharges.

 

 

 

Source : CPCB BULLETIN VOL.-I, JULY 2016, Updated on December 6th, 2016

 

 

Wastewater Generation and Treatment Capacity for Class I and Class II Cities discharging Wastewater into the Ganga River

 

Class I cities

 

S. No.
City/Town
State/UT
Population
Total Sewage
generation
( in MLD)
Treatment
Capacity
( in MLD)
Percentage
covered
Treated sewage
Disposal
1
Bhagalpur
Bihar
381190
61.6
11
18%
Ganga river basin
2
Patna
Bihar
1542184
249.2
109
44%
Ganga river basin
3
Munger
Bihar
209790
34
13.5
40%
Ganga river basin
4
Katihar
Bihar
196190
31.7
31.7
100%
Ganga river basin
5
Kanpur
Uttar Pradesh
3114530
339.3
171.1
50%
Ganga river basin
6
Varanasi
Uttar Pradesh
1353920
187.1
141
75%
Ganga river basin
7
Allahabad
Uttar Pradesh
1218070
208
89
43%
Ganga river basin
8
Farrukhabad-cum-Fatehgarh
Uttar Pradesh
280290
30.5
8.3
27%
Ganga river basin
9
Mirzapur-Vindhyachal
Uttar Pradesh
252470
27.5
14
51%
Ganga river basin
10
Unnao
Uttar Pradesh
178250
23.9
19.4
81%
Ganga river basin
11
Ballia
Uttar Pradesh
125740
18
-
0%
Ganga river basin
12
Dehradun
Uttarakhand
550800
76.1
-
0%
Ganga river basin
13
Hardwar
Uttarakhand
215260
39.6
18
45%
Ganga river basin
14
Kolkata
West Bengal
5267630
618.4
172
28%
Ganga river basin
15
Haldia
West Bengal
196300
24.5
24.5
100%
Ganga river basin
16
Santipur
West Bengal
158920
18.7
18.7
100%
Ganga river basin
17
Nabadwip
West Bengal
132290
15.5
10
65%
Ganga river basin
18
Basirhat
West Bengal
130090
15.3
-
0%
Ganga river basin
19
Bangaon
West Bengal
117430
13.8
-
0%
Ganga river basin
20
South Dumdum
West Bengal
450970
53
52.9
100%
Ganga river basin
21
Rajpur Sonarpur
West Bengal
386850
33.6
45.4
100%
Ganga river basin
22
Kamarhati
West Bengal
361480
48.8
40
82%
Ganga river basin
23
North Dumdum
West Bengal
253040
29.7
-
0%
Ganga river basin
25
Ulberia
West Bengal
232410
27.3
24
Naihati
West Bengal
 
26
Kanchrapara
West Bengal
145040
17
-
0%
Ganga river basin
27
Halisahar
West Bengal
143150
16.8
-
0%
Ganga river basin
28
North Barrackpur
West Bengal
142050
19.2
16.7
87%
Ganga river basin
9
Rishra
West Bengal
130250
13.5
15.3
100%
Ganga river basin
30
Ashoknagar Kalyangarh
West Bengal
128200
17.3
15
87%
Ganga river basin
31
Haora
West Bengal
1160010
136.2
63.9
47%
Ganga river asin
32
Bhatpara
West Bengal
508250
59.7
28.5
48%
Ganga river basin
33
Maheshtala
West Bengal
447600
52.5
3.9
7%
Ganga river basin
34
Serampore
West Bengal
227650
26.7
18.9
71%
Ganga river basin
35
Chandannagar
West Bengal
186490
16.1
22.7
100%
Ganga river basin
36
Habra
West Bengal
146850
17.2
-
0%
Ganga river basin
 
Total
 
2,09,19,384
2637.7
1174.4
 
 

 

Class II cities

 

S. No.
City/Town
State/UT
Population
Total Sewage
( in MLD)
Treatment
Capacity
( in MLD)
Percentage
covered
Treated sewage
Disposal
1
Buxar
Bihar
82975
7.6
2
26%
Ganga river basin
2
Sitamarhi
Bihar
56769
6.5
-
0%
Ganga river basin
3
Begusarai
Bihar
93378
8.6
-
0%
Ganga river basin
4
Mokameh
Bihar
56400
8
-
0%
Ganga river basin
5
Najibabad
Uttar Pradesh
79087
7.6
-
0%
Ganga river basin
6
Bijnor
Uttar Pradesh
79368
7.6
8.1
100%
Ganga river basin
7
Mughalsarai
Uttar Pradesh
88386
16
-
0%
Ganga river basin
8
Ghazipur
Uttar Pradesh
95243
10.7
-
0%
Ganga river basin
9
Kannauj
Uttar Pradesh
 
71530
7
-
0%
Ganga river basin
10
Deoband
Uttar Pradesh
81706
7.8
-
0%
Ganga river basin
11
Gangaghat
Uttar Pradesh
70817
6.8
-
0%
Ganga river basin
12
Rishikesh
Uttarakhand
59671
10.7
6.3
59%
Ganga river basin
13
Roorkee
Uttarakhand
97064
11
-
0%
Ganga river basin
14
Ranaghat
West Bengal
68754
6
-
0%
Ganga river basin
 
Total
 
 
122
16.4
13%
Ganga river basin

 

Status of water supply, waste water generation and treatment in class-I cities and class-II town of India, CPCB, 2010

 

Source: National Ganga River Basin Authority, 2011

 

Municipal Wastewater Generation and Mode of Disposal in the Ganga Basin

 

S. No.

State/UT

No. of 
Cities

 

Municipal 
Population

 

Volume of 
Waste 
Water 
Generated 
(MLD)

 

Volume of Waste

Water Disposed (MLD)

No. of Cities with

Various Mode of

Disposal

Ganga 
River

Other Rivers 
(Tributar ies)

Land

Ganga
River

Other Rivers 
(Tributar ies)

Land

 A

Class I cities

1

Bihar & Jharkhand

24

7399891

1045.6

376.5

562.8

106.3

4

16

4

2

Haryana

18

4952990

389.6

-

250.3

139.3

-

8

10

4

Madhya Pradesh

18

8415820

898.9

-

877.4

21.5

-

17

1

5

Rajasthan

7

5148920

696.5

-

313.3

383.2

-

5

2

6

Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand

55

25620720

3017.5

950

2051.3

16.2

9

45

1

7

West Bengal

56

19422911

2197.2

1311.3

644.7

241.2

23

21

12

8

Delhi

1

14858800

2948

-

2948

-

-

1

-

Ganga Basin

179

85820052

11193.3

2637.8

7647.8

907.7

36

113

30

 

B

Class II cities  

9

Bihar & Jharkhand

27

2354872

191.6

30.7

14.8

146.1

4

2

21

10

Haryana

2

180550

10.1

-

-

10.1

-

-

2

11

Madhya Pradesh

18

1513530

124.1

-

40.4

83.7

-

5

13

12

Rajasthan

13

1460740

122.5

-

37.5

85

-

6

7

13

Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand

59

4621792

411.1

85.2

36.5

289.4

9

4

46

14

West Bengal

28

2095384

164.3

6

5.3

153

1

1

26

 

Ganga Basin

147

12226868

1023.7

121.9

134.5

767.3

14

18

115

 

Source: Status of water supply, waste water generation and treatment in class-I cities and class-II towns of India, CPCB, 2010

 

Disposal of waste water in Ganga basin

 

State


Amount of Waste water directly discharged in to the Ganga from class I cities & class II towns (mld)


Amount of Wastewater  discharged in to the tributaries  or sub-tributaries of the Ganga from class I cities & class II towns(mld)


Amount of Wastewater  discharged on land/low lying areas from class I cities & class II towns 6(mld)

Total waste water (mld) disposal in Ganga Basin

Bihar 412.1  171.5  87.8  671.4
Jharkhand -  119.6  11.6  131.2
Haryana -  136.9  72.6  209.5
Madhya Pradesh -  503.0  123.5  626.5
Rajasthan -  210.7  249.6  460.3
Utter Pradesh 653.8  881.6  225.8  1761.2
Uttaranchal 42.5  24.0  46.9  113.4
West Bengal 1429.2  93.6  52.5  1575.3
Delhi -  2350.0  350.0  2700.0
Total 2537.6  4490.9  1220.3  8248.8


Source: Status of sewage treatment plants in Ganga Basin, CPCB Publication, June 2003

 

River wise breakup of Grossly Polluting Industries

 

River

No. Of Units

ETP Status

ETP Status

Breakup of not operational units

Discharge (MLD)

 

 

Installed

Not Installed

Not Required

 

Self closed

Closed by Board/ CPCB/NGT

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Ganga

105

84

17

4

32

30

43

73.29

Yamuna

535

493

23

19

414

100

21

161.40

Gomti

41

41

0

0

37

3

1

36.94

Ghaghra

55

55

0

0

46

4

5

71.89

Other Tributaries

28

24

4

0

24

4

0

190.68

Total

764

697

44

23

553

141

70

534.20

 

 Other Tributaries -Narayani, Tamsa, Son etc.

 

Sector wise breakup of Grossly Polluting Industries

 

Sector

No.of Unit

ETP Status

Operational Units

Breakup of not operational units

Discharge (MLD)

 

 

Installed

Not Installed

Not required

 

Self closed

Closed by Board/ CPCB/NGT

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Distillery

34

34

0

0

23

6

5

0.00

Sugar

69

69

0

0

56

11

2

43.56

Paper

69

66

1

2

51

10

8

89.85

Tannery

15

15

0

0

7

6

2

0.96

Textile

421

368

33

20

296

81

44

32.17

Other

156

145

10

1

120

27

9

367.66

Total

764

697

44

23

553

141

70

534.20

 

Other includes dairy, thermal power plants, slaughter house, pharmaceuticals, fertilizer, etc

 

Source:UP Pollution Control Board  Updated On 14 July, 2018