Envis Centre, Ministry of Environment & Forest, Govt. of India

Printed Date: Monday, October 18, 2021

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

Swachh Bharat or Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Hindi: स्वच्छ भारत अभियान, English: Clean Indian Mission) is a national level campaign by the Government of India covering 4041 statutory towns to clean the streets, roads and infrastructure of the country. This campaign was officially launched on 2 October 2014 at Rajghat, New Delhi, where Prime Minister Narendra Modi himself wielded broom and cleaned a road. The campaign is India's biggest ever cleanliness drive and 3 million government employees and schools and colleges students of India participated in this event. The mission was started by Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister of India, nominating nine famous personalities for this campaign, and they take up the challenge and nominate nine more people and so on(like the branching of a tree). It has been carried forward since then with famous people from all walks of life joining it.



Swachh Bharat Abhiyan was announced by Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi on Indian Independence Day & launched on 2 Oct 2014, Gandhi Jayanti. On this day, Modi addressed the citizens of India in a public gathering held at Rajghat, New Delhi, India and asked everyone to join this campaign. Later on this day, Modi himself swept a parking area at Mandir Marg Police Station followed by pavement in Valmiki Basti, a colony of sanitation workers, at Mandir Marg, near Connaught Place, New Delhi.


On 2 October, Anil Ambani, an Indian industrialist and a participant in this event, told in a statement.


I am honoured to be invited by our respected Prime Minister Shri Narendrabhai Modi to join the "Swachh Bharat Abhiyan"... I dedicate myself to this movement and will invite nine other leading Indians to join me in the "Clean India" campaign.


Indian President Pranab Mukherjee asked every Indian to spend 100 hours annually in this drive. This campaign is supported by the Indian Army, Border Security Force, Indian Air Force and India. More details....


Objectives of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan:


  • Construction of individual, cluster and community toilets.
  • To eliminate or reduce open defecation. Open defecation is one of the main causes of deaths of thousands of children each year.
  • Not only latrine construction, the Swachh Bharat Mission will also make an initiative of establishing an accountable mechanism of monitoring latrine use.
  • Public awareness will also be provided about the drawbacks of open defecation and promotion of latrine use.
  • Proper, dedicated ground staff will be recruited to bring about behavioural change and promotion of latrine use.
  • For proper sanitation use, the mission will aim at changing people’s attitudes, mindsets and behaviours.
  • Villages to be kept clean with Solid and Liquid Waste Management.
  • Solid and liquid waste management through gram panchayats.
  • To lay water pipelines in all villages, ensuring water supply to all households by 2019.
  • To make India Open Defecation Free (ODF) India by 2019, by providing access to toilet facilities to all.
  • To provide toilets, separately for Boys and Girls in all schools by 15.8.2015.
  • To provide toilets to all Anganwadis


Source: http://www.mapsofindia.com


Swachhta Pledge



  • Mahatma Gandhi dreamt of an India which was not only free but also clean and developed.
  • Mahatma Gandhi secured freedom for mother India.
  • Now it is our duty to serve mother India by keeping the country neat and clean.
  • I take this pledge that I will remain committed towards cleanliness and devote time for this.
  • I will devote 100 hours per year that is two hours per week to voluntary work for cleanliness.
  • I will neither litter nor let others litter.
  • I will initiate the quest for cleanliness with myself, my family, my locality, my village and my work place.
  • I believe that the countries of the world that appear clean are so because their citizens do not indulge in littering nor do they allow it to happen.
  • With this firm belief, I will propagate the message of Swachh Bharat Mission in villages and towns.
  • I will encourage 100 other persons to take this pledge which I am taking today.
  • I will endeavor to make them devote their 100 hours for cleanliness.
  • I am confident that every step I take towards cleanliness will help in making my country clean.


For More Languages....


Hindi, English, Punjabi, Telgu, Kannada, Gujrati, Marathi, Malayalam, Odia/Oryia, Tamil, Bengali, Assamese


Swachh Bharat Mission: Urban Areas


The mission aims to cover 1.04 crore households, provide 2.5 lakh community toilets, 2.6 lakh public toilets, and a solid waste management facility in each town. Under the programme, community toilets will be built in residential areas where it is difficult to construct individual household toilets. Public toilets will also be constructed in designated locations such as tourist places, markets, bus stations, railway stations, etc. The programme will be implemented over a five-year period in 4,401 towns. Of the Rs 62,009 crore likely to be spent on the programme, the Centre will pitch in Rs 14,623 crore. Of the Centre’s share of Rs 14,623 crore, Rs 7,366 crore will be spent on solid waste management, Rs 4,165 crore on individual household toilets, Rs 1,828 crore on public awareness and Rs 655 crore on community toilets.



The programme includes elimination of open defecation, conversion of unsanitary toilets to pour flush toilets, eradication of manual scavenging, municipal solid waste management and bringing about a behavioural change in people regarding healthy sanitation practices.


Source: Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India


Swachh Bharat Mission: Gramin Areas


The Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan has been restructured into the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin). The mission aims to make India an open defecation free country in Five Years. Under the mission, One lakh thirty four thousand crore rupees will be spent for construction of about 11 crore 11 lakh toilets in the country. Technology will be used on a large scale to convert waste into wealth in rural India in the forms of bio-fertilizer and different forms of energy. The mission is to be executed on war footing with the involvement of every gram panchayat, panchayat samiti and Zila Parishad in the country, besides roping in large sections of rural population and school teachers and students in this endeavor.



As part of the mission, for rural households, the provision for unit cost of individual household latrine has been increased from Rs 10,000 to Rs 12,000 so as to provide for water availability, including for storing, hand-washing and cleaning of toilets. Central share for such latrines will be Rs 9,000 while state share will be Rs 3,000. For North Eastern states, Jammu & Kashmir and special category states, the Central share will be 10,800 and the state share Rs 1,200. Additional contributions from other sources will be permitted.


Objectives of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)


  • Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas.
  • Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Swachh Bharat by 2019 with all Gram Panchayats in the country attaining Nirmal status.
  • Motivate communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions promoting sustainable sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health education.
  • Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.
  • Develop community managed environmental sanitation systems focusing on solid & liquid waste management for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.


 Impact of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan


The relationship between cleanliness and better health has been propagated since the inception of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. The transition of a cleaner India to a healthier India has been advocated by numerous public figures, from the Prime Minister to film actors and sportsmen. In 1990, deaths due to unsafe water and sanitation consisted of 13 per cent of total deaths across the country. BY 2016, the percentage had come down to 5 per cent. Though the decrease is significant, it is still quite high. The states of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan have sanitation coverage of 80 per cent and above, signaling stark changes in their sanitation figures.


While no national or state level survey has yet been conducted on the overall impact of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan in states, several organisations have recorded their observations across states in studying the impact of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan on health and its improvement. As per data from Global Health Observatory, child diarrhoea deaths in India decreased from 1,21,889 in 2014 to 1,17,285 in 2015 to 1,02,813 in 2016. In the two years since Swachh Bharat Abhiyan was launched, the percentage of under-five children dying from diarrhoea came down from 13% to 9%.


Source:https://swachhindia.ndtv.com Updated  on 18th January, 2020

Mission Progress: Sanitation


  • Urban areas of 35 states and UTs have become ODF. Only 32 ULBs from West Bengal are remaining to be ODF.
  • A total of 4,340 cities (out of 4,372) have declared themselves ODF (99% progress), of which 4,258 cities/ ULBs have been certified as Open Defecation Free (ODF) after third party certification by 31.12.20. From January to March, 2021, 4270 ULBs are estimated to be certified as ODF.


To do this:


  • 66.72 lakh units of Individual Household Toilets (IHHL) have been constructed and/or under construction (i.e. 113% progress against target of 58.99 lakhs) by 31.12.2020. Further, 3 lakh IHHL Units are estimated to be constructed from January to March, 2021.
  • 6.28 lakh seats of Community and Public Toilet seats (CT/PT) have been constructed and / or under construction (i.e. 124% progress against target of 5.07 lakhs) by 31.12.2020. Further, 25000 CT/PT Seats are estimated to be constructed from January to March, 2021.


Source:Annual Report 2020-21 MoHUA updated on 9th May, 2021


Swachh Survekeshan Survey 2019: Indore cleanest city; Chhattisgarh cleanest state




Source : Top 10 Cleanest Cities, Updated on 8th May, 2019


Swachh Survekshan 2018 – National Level Winners:


Source:Swachh Survekshan 2018 – National Level Winners


 Swachh Bharat 2017 survey and their rankings:

Source: Financial Express 


                                               Swachh Survekshan -2016 – ranks of 73 cities


Mysuru tops the list ; Dhanbad at the bottom


15 Leaders, 20 Aspiring Leaders, 18 cities needing acceleration, 20 Slow Movers identified


73 cities surveyed for cleanliness have been categorized based on the marks scored by each of them in the ‘Swachh Survekshan-2016’ survey, results of which were announced by the Urban Development Minister Shri M.Venkaiah Naidu today.


15 cities who scored more than 70% of the total marks of 2000 were categorized as Leaders, 20 cities with scores in the range of 60%-70% are Aspiring Leaders, those with scores in the range of 50%-60% are the cities who need to accelerate their efforts and cities who scored below 50% are named Slow Movers who need to work harder to improve santiation.


Leaders :


Rank City





4.New Delhi Municipal council






10.Greater Mumbai


12.Navi Mumabi



15.Imphal Aspiring



Rank City























Acceleration required:

Rank city





39.South Muncipal Corporation of Delhi




43.North MCD









52.East MCD



Slow Movers:

Rank City


54.Hubbali-Dharwad (Karnataka)










64.Kalyan Dombivili (Maharashtra)











Source: Press Information Bureau, Government of India, Ministry of Urban Development.