Nationwide Rural Ground Water Prospects Information
National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), ISRO has prepared nationwide ground water prospects maps, sponsored by Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (erstwhile RGNDWM), Ministry of Drinking water Sanitation (MDWS), Government of India (GOI). The above maps are generated under Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP) which was the major developmental activity of GOI in water sector to provide drinking water to all the habitations in a time-bound-period. However, scientific database on ground water, which facilitates identification of prospective ground water zones for systematic selection of appropriate sites for drilling, is not available in many states to tackle the drinking water problem on war footing by the concerned state officials involved in rural water supply. Hence entire India ground water database was created (spread over 4898 maps) covering all the habitation in a phased manner (Phase-I to IV) on priority basis. The possible ground water sources were delineated for drinking within the radius of 1.5 km covering for all habitations using Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) series of satellite data (1C, 1D & Resourcesat) on 1:50,000 scale. Presently the GOI has renamed this programme as National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP).
More detail: Bhuvan - Bhujal (Ground Water Prospects Information System)
Sanitation Mapping of Groundwater Contamination in a Rural Village of India
Availability of clean water and adequate sanitation facilities are of prime importance for limiting diarrheal diseases. We examined the spatial information on the groundwater quality and sanitation facilities of a village in southern India using Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. Place of residence, position of wells and latrines were mapped and well water samples were tested for microbial contamination (Total Coliform Counts (TCC), Fecal Coliform Counts (FCC) and Fecal Streptococcal Counts (FSC)). A well structured questionnaire was administered to 50 residents of the selected areas to elicit information on water collection, handling and storage. The location and distances of wells from latrines were determined using the Global Positioning System (GPS) device and a tape rule respectively. Data on 170 cases of various water-borne diseases were collected from primary health centers in the study area. Groundwater in the village was found to be microbiologically unfit for consumption. Analysis using direct observations supplemented by GIS maps revealed poor planning, design of the wells and improper siting of wells from latrines which were found to be the possible reasons of groundwater contamination. There was a significant difference in TCC between covered and uncovered wells (p < 0.01) but no significant differences were observed in the FCC, FSC and well covering. The mean distance (6.44 ± 2.37 m) of wells from the latrines in the study area was below the limit (15.24 m or 50 ft) set by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). TCC and FCC increased with a decrease in distance between the wells and latrines with a significance (p < 0.01). A moderate negative correlation (r = -0.593, r = -0.470) was ensued between the distance from latrine and coliform count. This study accentuates the need to set standards for the siting of wells from latrines and need for treatment. Read more....
Water Quality Mapping with GPS and GIS in Indian States
As India’s water quality crisis deepens, it is necessary to map water quality and provide relief to the affected areas
Providing stable freshwater is the most pressing of the many environmental challenges on India’s national horizon. Multiple influence peddlers like population explosion, rapid urbanization, industrialization and agricultural development are putting stress on water resources. This has resulted in high impact on quality and quantity of water in the country. Summer and rainy seasons witness the eruption of water-borne diseases, such as, cholera, gastroenteritis and diarrhoea due to poor quality of drinking water and sanitation.
Looking at the seriousness of the issue, government authorities sought to map the water quality in rural regions and take counter-measures to provide relief to affected areas of respective states. Public Health Engineering Department (PHED) from MP and Chhattisgarh, State Water and Sanitation Mission (SWSM) from Uttar Pradesh and Water and Sanitation Support Organization (WSSO) at Maharashtra drove the mission. The tender for Water Quality Mapping Projects was bagged by ADCC Infocad Ltd. Thus, the GIS & Engineering services solutions provider was engaged to map the quality of water.
The mandate was to determine the quality of water in its natural state and assess the impact of activities of human being upon quality of water; also, to compare the observed chemical parameters with BIS 10500:2012 (previously BIS 10500:1991). ADCC also aimed at identifying the contaminated surface sources. It intended at obtaining valid, reliable and credible data of water quality as a whole and in further course, the corrective measures to ensure safe and quality water supply to rural India.
It included the testing of drinking water samples using laboratory setup and analysis through titrimetric methods in CG, MP and Maharashtra. Whereas the department at Uttar Pradesh provided handy Field Test Kits (FTK) that enabled spot assessment of contamination status. Further, the susceptible samples are retested by Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam State Research Laboratory for confirmation and necessary actions.
After finishing for 8 districts of Madhya Pradesh, 1 from Chhattisgarh and first phase of 15 at Uttar Pradesh, the activities are going on for second phase of Uttar Pradesh as well as entire Maharashtra state.
High workforce management involved while proceeding through sampling, tagging and transportation within timeframe. This also included analysis and integration of field database. Developing Decision Support System through Web GIS application intended data retrieval and MIS analysis for the authorities. From the initiation day itself, ADCC strategically planned the field visits and fixed the daily schedule. Mapping and unique identification as well as transportation planning using GIS-based customized real time monitoring tools eased down the time-bound water analysis and data management for numerous samples.
ADCC followed all the guidelines laid by Indian Standard (IS 10500:2012) for sampling, transportation and analysis of water quality mapping. The mapping activity took place in Autodesk Map software, similarly data integration in ESRI ArcGIS software to produce thematic maps. GPS mapping was done for 108,000 drinking water sources for Madhya Pradesh, 207, 714 sources for Chhattisgarh, and 2,200,000 sources (and counting) for Uttar Pradesh, the same estimated to be 300,000 across Maharashtra. Unique id-based sources were snapped and recorded geographically in the latitude-longitude format using GPS handhelds along with asset mapping in Maharashtra. The DSS development took place using Open Source Spatial Server.
GIS integration helped in understanding the location-based details of water contamination. Water quality maps prepared in GIS, together with sanitation data, assisted in understanding the priority area for water treatment and drinking water quality monitoring for the future. These maps also aided in identifying certain contaminated locations immediately and actions to be taken by the department officials. ADCC facilitated Water Quality Management (WQM), sanitation data updation and digital photo collection using Trimble’s GPS-based applications. WQM database was published on a Web portal (SQL Server) after being verified by the department.
Source : www.geospatialworld.net