Sanitation is a broad term which includes safe disposal of human waste, waste water management, solid waste management, water supply, control of vectors of diseases, domestic and personal hygiene, food, housing, etc. Sanitation includes environmental sanitation which is largely viewed as “the control of all those factors in man’s physical environment which exercise a deleterious effect on his physical environment, health, alleviating poverty, enhancing quality of life and raising productivity- all of which are essential for sustainable development” (WHO 1992).
The World Health Organization states that:
"Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. The word 'sanitation' also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal.
Sanitation includes all four of these engineering infrastructure items (even though often only the first one is strongly associated with the term "sanitation"):
• Excreta management systems
• Wastewater management systems
• Solid waste management systems
• Drainage systems for rainwater, also called stormwater drainage
Sanitary household toilet is the most important aspect of sanitation. Besides, restoration of dignity, privacy safety and social status, sanitation has strong bearings on child mortality, maternal health, water quality, primary education, gender equity, reduction of hunger and food security, environmental sustainability, global partnerships and ultimately poverty alleviation & improvement of overall quality of life. Open defecation still in practice in many rural areas resulting in serious social, economic and environmental problems. Openly left human waste helps in breeding and transmission of pathogens, which carry diseases and infections. The problem is most acute for children, women and young girls. Children, especially those under 5 are most prone to diarrhoea and sometimes even lose their lives. In case of women, lack of sanitation facilities often forces them to restrict themselves by reducing and controlling their diet, which leads to nutritional and health impacts. Women, especially adolescent girls, face higher risks of sexual assault due to lack of household toilets.
Types of sanitation:
• Dry sanitation
• Ecological sanitation
• Environmental sanitation
• Improved and unimproved sanitation
• Sustainable sanitation
• On-site sanitation
Impact of good sanitation: Good sanitation has the following impacts on individuals and on community:
• Improves health
• Decrease in morbidity and mortality
• Improves productivity
• Poverty alleviation
• Improves water quality
• Minimizes incidence of drop-out in school particularly girl students
Sanitation Facilities in India and Selected State
In Madhya Pradesh, around 22.5 percent urban households defecate in open spaces, followed by Tamil Nadu (16.2 percent), Uttar Pradesh (14.8 percent), Gujarat (8.7 percent), Maharashtra (7.7 percent) and Delhi (3 percent).
A staggering 55 percent of rural households defecate in the open, according to data tabled in the Lok Sabha on May 7, 2015. Odisha tops list, with 86.6 percent of rural households defecating in the open. In Kerala, no more than 3.9 percent of households defecate in the open.
Physical Progress Report
Source: Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation Govt. of India, Annual Report 2014-2015
Physical Progress in 2010-11 and 2011-12 (upto March, 2012)
Annual objectives for 2011-12
Achievement for 2011-12 (upto March, 2012)
Achievement in 2010-11 (upto March, 2011)
|Individual household latrines
Source:Government of India, Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation
Physical Progress in 2012-13 and 2013-2014 (upto Dec, 2013)
Community Sanitary Complex
|2013-14 (Upto Dec, 2013)
Source:Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanittaion Govt. of India, Annual Report 2013-2014